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孙远 GRE作文笔记
寄托天下 2004-07-05 02:25 浏览3585次
第一天 6.17 [b][b]两篇作文: [b]一、Analysis of an Issue (perspective 观点) 分析要 evidence reasoning , [b]objective [b][b]二、二者择其一 [b]Take a position and supported 立论,确定立场并支持 [b]Analysis of an argument => critique your argument 批判、批驳 [b][b]要求: [b]1.articulately express your idea clearly and complicatedly [b]2.examine claims and company evidence [b]3.support idea with relevant examples [b]4.sustain a well focus coherent discussions [b]5.control the element of standard of English [b][b]题库:共249题 [b][b]安排: 1-3讲 argument [b]4-6讲 Issue [b]侧重 analytical thinking, 语言次之 [b]4分够用,5分有竞争优势 [b][b][Argument] [b]----策略: [b]1. 掌握分析技巧 [b]2. 掌握开头和结尾的module [b]3. 准备每道题的提纲 (chance favors only the prepared minds) [b]4. 学用一些闪光句型 [b]5. 熟读argument 题目 [b][b]----审题: [b] 论述包括: 论点claim (信号词: therefore,so,thus,consequently) [b]支持support ---- evidence: [b]examples,facts,statistics,authorities [b] -----reasons: [b]assumptions, values,beliefs [b][b]----验证逻辑 critique logic [b][b]survey ----quantity , quality(random) 包括 1.分组group 分为几个sub [b]group [b][b] 2.pecentage of each sub [b][b] 3.select sample 取样 [b] procedure 有没有sample 或人被排除在外 [b][b]how large was the sample ? [b][b]Are the statistics complete ? [b][b]Different: Do the statistics make a difference ? 数据重要么? [b][b]闪光句型: [b][b]1. the assumption that … is open to doubt/ unreliable /unfounded / [b]goundless / unwarranted [b]2. the arguer commits a fallacy of … [b]3. the arguer fails to establish a causal relationship between A and B [b]4. the result of the survey lacks credibility and therefore does not [b]lend strong support to the arguer’s assumption. [b]5. the arguer fails to convince us that … contribute to / lead to / [b]result in … [b]6. the comparison between A and B is incomplete [b]7. it is possible / likely that … [b][b]第二天 6.19 [b][b]一、写作步骤: [b]1. skim the question and write the introduction [b]2. input the topic sentence. 找出问题所在,一个问题一句话 [b]3. develop the body paragraphs one by one. 逐一展开问题段落,按重要性递减 [b]的规律展开 [b]4. conclusion(略) [b]5. checking [b][b]二、开头段的写作: [b]找出原论证的结论或主张,指出原论证的论据和假设,指出原论证的逻辑错误。 [b]忠实的保留原始信息。 用自己的词保留原始信息。 [b]In this argument / analysis, the arguer concludes / claims that…..To [b]support / justify the conclusion , the arguer points out / provides the [b]evidence that …and that… In addition , the arguer reasons (推理) that [b]….. [b]This argument suffers from several critical fallacies / flaws. [b][b]三、SURVEY 问题: [b]1. vague => misleading (majority, percent, base number, few, many) [b]2. question: what questions will ask in the survey? [b]Loaded questions 有误导性的问题 [b]3. Who [b]4. Average 平均数不适合于每个成员 [b]5. Confusing causal relationship with correlation 混淆因果关系与相关性 [b] Every causal relationship implies a correlation, but the statistical [b]correlation does not necessarily implies a causal relation. [b]6. When was the survey conducted? [b]7. Are respondents (授调查者) being forthright (直率,说真话) ? [b]Image men / essence men [b][b]闪光句型: [b][b]1. the arguer over simplifies the issue of… [b]2. the arguer unfairly assumes that… [b]3. the arguer fails take into account other factors that … [b]4. the procedure of the survey might be problematic. [b][b][b][b]第三天 6.21 [b][b]正文写作 [b]一、 段数量:2~4段之间,一段含4~8个句子 [b]二、 TOPIC SENTENCE 内参4页 [b]三、 过渡句,承上启下 [b]l first… second…. Third…. [b]l In the first place… in the second place… last but not least… [b]l The major problem with this argument is that… [b]Another problem that weakens/ undermines (削弱) the logic of this argument [b]is [b]that… [b]Before I come to my conclusion, it is necessary to point out another flaw [b](several other flaws) that undermines the argument. [b]四、 攻击的方法: [b]例证法: for example / instance [b]假设法: if, even if , given that (考虑到) ,granted that (姑且承认) [b] only when (只有当) ,unless , in this / that case , even so [b]Unless the arguer provides substantial evidence regarding / [b]concerning / as to …, the assumption that … is unfounded / problematic / [b]unconvincing … [b]推测法: it is possible that … , it is equally possible that … , [b]another [b]possibility is that … , it is also likely that … [b] possibly , perhaps [b][b]五、 运用闪光句型增加文采: P 88 [b]六、 数据的问题: [b]1. Begging the question 把有待证实的关键性假设当作已经成立 [b]Circular reasoning 循环论证 P35 2 , P44 37, P53 73 [b]2. Fallacy of missing evidence [b]Hasty generalization 急于概括 [b]Neglect a relevant evidence 忽略相关证据 [b]P51 66 , P48 56 [b]3. False analogy 只看到表层差异,而忽略深层差异 [b]P63 112 , P42 29 [b]4. False dilemma / either or fallacy 非此即彼的错误 [b]P59 96 , P43 34 [b]5. Non sequitor => non causal relationship [b]P50 62 , P52 70 [b][b]闪光句型: [b]In the absence of all this information, it is impossible for us to evaluate [b]… that… [b]However, the arguer fails to provide any information regarding … [b]It is very likely that … [b] [b][b]第四天 6.24 [b][b]1. post hoc , ergo prepter hoc = after this , therefore because of this [b]P46 47 , P55 81 [b]2. concurrence P36 5 , P50 61 [b]3. incomplete comparison or selective comparison P54 78 [b]4. composition and division [b]composition: 把个体特征不恰当的移植到整体上 [b]division: 把群体特征简单的移植到个体上 [b]P48 55 [b][b]最后段的写作: [b]两项任务: [b]1. 指出原论者未能有效的支持自己的结论 [b]2. 指出原论者可以从正文分析的几个方面加强原论证。 [b]针对正文几个topic sentence 作者应在这几个方面加强 [b]Module: p75-p79 [b][b][b]Issue (是非问题) [b]Strategy: P67 [b]选题: [b]构思:brainstorm [b]开头:陈述问题背景,指出自己论点 [b]正文:2~3 段,分别支持自己立场 [b]1. 每段要有一个主题 [b]2. 展开论述 [b]3. 复杂性,让步,修正 [b]4. 使用信号词 [b]结尾: [b]语言问题: check P68 [b][b]Brainstorm 快速构思 [b]1. 从大脑里调出尽可能多的相关信息 [b]2. 充分relax [b]3. 快速记忆 [b][b]Issue的典型立场 [b]Agree P104 3 [b]Disagree P108 47 [b][b]闪光句型----结论: [b]1. to sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility cause the evidence cited [b]in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the arguer [b]maintains. [b]To strengthen the argument, the arguer would have to provide more [b]evidence concerning … [b]2. moreover, it would be necessary for the arguer to rule out all the [b]above-mentioned possibilities before we can better evaluate the argument. [b]3. As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically [b]acceptable, the arguer would have to demonstrate that … [b]4. additionally, the arguer must provide evidence to rule out other [b]possible causes … [b]5. To conclude, this argument is not persuasive as it stands. Before we [b]accept the conclusion, the arguer must present more facts to demonstrate [b]that … [b]6. To solidify the argument, the arguer would have to produce more [b]evidence concerning … [b]7. In summary, the conclusion reached in this argument is invalid and [b]misleading. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have [b]to [b]prove that … [b]8. Moreover, I would suspend (推迟) my judgment about the credibility of [b]the recommendation until the arguer can provide concrete evidence that … [b] [b][b]第六天 7.1 [b][b]四、how to support your claim 正文论证 [b]4)anecdotes, cases, stories P256 [b]句型: a case in point is … ABC serves as a typical example. [b]5) Personal experience P192 [b]6) Scenarios 假设 [b]可能发生的事情,可作为一种依据 P70 [b]Imagine / Suppose that … [b]7) Analogy P269 [b]句型:similarly , likewise , in the same way / manner [b]2. Deductive Reasoning 演绎推理 P30 P6 内参 [b][b]五、结尾段的写作: [b]1. restate your position P71 [b]句型: P101 [b]2. restate your position and summarize your reasons P285 [b]1. restate your position and extand your argument [b]建议,号召,展望 P70. 72. 73 [b]句型:In conclusion, I hold that … not only because that …, but also [b]because [b]… [b][b]l 语言方面技巧: [b]1. 使用高分词汇 [b]情态动词: could, would, might, can, may, will [b]程度副词: 肯定 certainly, naturally, obviously, understandably, [b]undoubtedly, plainly [b]可能性 possibly, probably, potentially, likely, presumably. [b]信号词: P155 [b]分析性词汇: [b]in the case, given that (考虑到…), granted that (姑且承认), actually, as [b]a matter of fact, admittedly, to some extent, in a sense, in the last [b]analysis, on balance. [b]2. 正规语言与非正规 P161 [b]3. 句式的变化 P170 [b]1) 使用不同的句子结构 [b]2) 变换相邻句子的开头结构 [b]4. 复杂句式 P6 内参 [b][b]l 备考建议 [b]1. 熟悉每道题及其提纲 [b]充实论据(讨论、看书、工具箱),补充或重写 [b]2. 背诵——工具箱 [b]3. 模拟训练 issue, argument 各写 20 篇 [b][b][b]如有错误或最新的变动,please inform to Jassonw@sina.com [b] [b]如要下载完全版,请到寄托机经论坛--下载SHARING [b]寄托机经论坛URL:http://211.101.159.196/cgi-bin/jj/list.cgi [b]
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