双语:盘点世界上最致命的15种生物
沪江英语 2018-03-22 13:42 浏览1096次

  你大概以为,让最多人丧生的动物一定是个猛兽,但事实上,世界上最致命的动物不是鲨鱼,也不是虎豹。最可怕的动物,其实就在我们身边。

  15. Sharks: 6 deaths a year
      鲨鱼:每年杀死6个人

截图来自Science Alert网站

  Shark attacks are pretty rare. In 2014, there were just three deaths globally related to shark attacks, and in 2015, there were six, which is about the average.

  鲨鱼袭击人类是很罕见的。2014年,全球只有三例因鲨鱼袭击而死亡的案例,2015年有6例,和平均水平大致相当。

  14. Wolves: 10 deaths a year
狼:每年杀死10个人

截图来自Science Alert网站

  Wolf attacks are not common in many parts of the world where wolves live.

  在世界上许多狼群居住的地方,被狼袭击并不多见。

  A review of wolf attacks found that very few happened in the 50 years leading up to 2002 in Europe and North America, though there were a few hundred reported over the course of two decades in some regions of India, averaging out to close to 10 per year.

  一份针对狼群袭击的报告发现,在2002年前的50年间,欧洲和北美洲很少发生狼袭击人的事件,不过近20年来,在印度一些地区发生过几百起人被狼袭击的事件,平均下来大概每年10起。

  13. Lions: 22+ deaths a year
狮子:每年杀死至少22个人

截图来自Science Alert网站

  Estimates for lion-related deaths also vary year-to-year. A 2005 study found that since 1990, lions have killed 563 people in Tanzania alone, an average of about 22 a year.

  命丧狮口的人数每年都不一样。2005年的一项研究发现,自1990年以来,光是在坦桑尼亚,就有563个人被狮子杀死,平均每年22人。

  Additional deaths likely occur outside of Tanzania, but it's difficult to find a concrete global number.

  在坦桑尼亚以外的其他地区,应该也有被狮子杀死的人,但难以得出一个具体的全球数据。

  12. Elephants: 500 deaths a year
大象:每年杀死500个人

截图来自Science Alert网站

  Elephants are also responsible for a number of deaths per year - a 2005National Geographic article said that 500 people a year are killed in elephant attacks.

  大象每年也会导致不少人丧生。2005年刊登在《国家地理》的一篇文章写道,每年有500人死于大象袭击。

  Far more elephants have been killed by people.

  但是被人杀死的大象比这要多得多。

  11. Hippopotamuses: 500 deaths a year
河马:每年杀死500个人

截图来自Science Alert网站

  For a long time, hippos were considered the most deadly animal in Africa. Hippos are known for being aggressive toward humans, including tipping over boats.

  长时间以来,河马一直被认为是非洲最致命的动物。众所周知,河马对人有攻击性,还会把人类乘坐的船打翻。

  10. Tapeworms: 700 deaths a year
绦虫:每年杀死700个人


  Moving to parasites, the tapeworm is responsible for an infection called cysticerosis that kills an estimated 700 people a year.

  作为寄生虫,绦虫会让人们感染上脑囊虫病,据估算每年导致约700人丧生。

  9. Crocodiles: 1,000 deaths a year
鳄鱼:每年杀死1000个人


  Crocodiles are now considered the large animal responsible for the most human deaths in Africa, according to the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, though concrete numbers are tricky to gather.

  据联合国粮食及农业组织,鳄鱼现在是在非洲导致最多人死亡的大型动物,不过具体数据难以收集到。

  8. Ascaris roundworms: 4,500 deaths a year
蛔虫:每年杀死4500个人

  

  The Ascaris roundworm leads to an infection called aschariasis that kills an estimated 4,500 people a year, according to a 2013 study.

  根据2013年的一项研究,蛔虫会让人感染蛔虫病,每年导致约4500人丧生。

  The WHO notes that the infection takes place in people's small intestine, and it's a disease that affects more children than adults.

  世界卫生组织指出,感染发生在人的小肠部位,这种病多发于儿童。

  7. Tsetse flies: 10,000 deaths a year
采采蝇:每年杀死1万人

 

  The tsetse fly transmits a disease called sleeping sickness, a parasitic infection that at first can lead to headaches, fever, joint pain, and itchiness, but later can lead to some serious neurological problems. The number of deaths has been decreasing.

  采采蝇会传播一种名为昏睡症的疾病,这种寄生虫感染病一开始会引发头痛、发烧、关节痛和瘙痒,但过后会导致严重的神经问题。因这种病而丧生的人数近年来有所下降。

  With about 10,000 new cases now reported each year, the estimated number of annual deaths is likely on the decline as well.

  现在每年报告的采采蝇致死事件约为1万例,这一数字可能也在下降。

  6. Assassin bugs: 12,000 deaths a year
猎蝽:每年杀死1.2万人


  The assassin bug, also called the kissing bug, is responsible for carrying Chagas disease, which kills about 12,000 people a year on average.

  猎蝽携带查加斯病毒,平均每年导致1.2万人丧生。猎蝽又名“吻猎蝽”。

  Chagas disease is a parasitic infection passed by the bug, which got its nickname by biting people on the face.

  查加斯病是猎蝽传播的一种寄生虫感染病,猎蝽因爱叮咬人脸而得到“吻猎蝽”的绰号。

  5. Freshwater snails: 20,000+ deaths a year
淡水蜗牛/淡水螺:每年杀死2万人以上


  The freshwater snail carries parasitic worms that infect people with a disease called schistosomiasis that can cause intense abdominal pain and blood in the stool or urine, depending on the area that's affected.

  淡水蜗牛携带的寄生虫会让人们染上血吸虫病。这种病会导致剧烈腹痛、便血或尿血,具体症状取决于感染的部位。

  Millions of people contract the infection, and the WHO estimates that anywhere between 20,000 and 200,000 deaths can be attributed to schistosomiasis.

  数百万人感染了这种病,世界卫生组织估计每年有2万到20万人因血吸虫病而丧生。

  4. Dogs: 35,000 deaths a year
狗:每年杀死3.5万人


  Dogs - specifically dogs infected by the rabies virus - are one of the deadliest animals out there, though the virus can be prevented using vaccines.

  狗——尤其是感染狂犬病毒的狗——是世界上最致命的动物之一,不过狂犬病可以通过注射疫苗来预防。

  About 35,000 deaths can be attributed to rabies, and of those cases, 99 percent are caused by dogs, according to WHO.

  根据世卫组织的数据,每年约有3.5万人死于狂犬病,这些人当中有99%是因为被狗咬伤而发病。

  3. Snakes: 100,000 deaths a year
蛇:每年杀死10万人

 

  Snake bites kill more than 100,000 people a year as of 2015. Worse still, there's a troubling shortage of an essential antivenom.

  截至2015年的数据,蛇每年咬死10万人以上。更糟的是,救命的抗蛇毒素还非常短缺。

  2. Humans: 437,000 deaths a year
人类:每年杀死43.7万人

  According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, there were about 437,000 homicides in 2012, making humans the second most deadly animal (and the deadliest mammal) to humans.

  根据联合国毒品与犯罪办公室的数据,2012年发生了大约43.7万起杀人案,这让人类成为对人类而言第二致命的动物(也是最致命的哺乳动物)。

  We are not quite our own worst enemy - but we're pretty close.

  我们不是自己最大的敌人,但是也差不多了。

  1. Mosquitoes: 750,000 deaths a year
       蚊子:每年杀死75万人

  

  Mosquitoes - the pesky bugs that suck blood and transmit viruses from person to person - are responsible for the most animal-related deaths.

  蚊子——这种吸血又在人与人之间传播病毒的讨厌昆虫——是导致最多人死亡的动物。

  Malaria by itself is responsible for more than half of mosquito-related deaths, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, though it's on the decline: The incidence of malaria fell by 37 percent between 2000 and 2015, according to the World Health Organisation.

  超半数死于蚊虫叮咬的人都患上了疟疾,其中绝大多数是在撒哈拉以南的非洲,不过死亡人数正在下降:根据世界卫生组织的数据,2000年到2015年间,死于疟疾的人数下降了37%。

  Dengue fever, another mosquito-borne disease, has become a leading cause of hospitalisation and death among children in some Asian and Latin-American countries.

  另一种蚊媒疾病——登革热已经成为一些亚洲和拉美国家儿童就医和死亡的首要原因。


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