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Robin大神杀G宝典:拿什么拯救你我的GRE阅读
寄托天下 2015-08-26 18:36 我要评论 浏览28162次
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Disclaimer:这篇文章的用意是告诉大家准备GRE过程中的一些习惯和方法,这些并不是放之四海而皆准的“黄金法则”,因此各位可以自行进行取舍修改。


关于我:我在3.9的考试中Verbal拿到了满分,两个V阅读全对。LSAT阅读也能在35分钟内做到错3个之内,因此我认为对于阅读我还是有些心得。经验贴可以见这里:

为了方便阅读做了一个PDF

寄托出品:拿什么拯救你我的GRE阅读 By Ben.pdf



二个基础(阅读之前需要夯实的基础)

1)单词

单词不光是要知道意思,还要知道言外之意,也就是connotation, 一个单词有literally meaning, 同样也有 figurative meaning. 在这里最典型的就是抽象词,这是阅读中最费脑子的事情。Compensate for, 这个词组翻译过来是赔偿,但是阅读里的意思 for的后面往往是说明以牺牲前者来达到后者的目的。如果某些核心单词还有障碍,那么你的阅读不可能一帆风顺。因此,单词是把门关。


2)长难句

这又是横在众多考G党面前的一道墙。这里推荐杨鹏的长难句。具体方法可以参见草木版主的长难句读法

我的建议是不需要背,这样非常拖进度也浪费时间。读到什么程度算是基本过关,看到一个难句可以识别出主要成分并剔除插入语,修饰语等成分。

Eg:
Also, a jury may give more probative weight than objective analysis would allow to vivid photographic evidence depicting a shooting victim’s wounds, or may underestimate the weight of defense testimony that is not delivered in a sufficiently forceful or persuasive manner.

这个句子你只需要读出来 Jury may overestimate or underestimate the testimony in a manner that of the testimony being presented.



四个习惯

1)好奇心(好奇害死猫)

在阅读中读到晦涩难懂的概念的时候不知道各位是什么态度,我的想法是真有意思啊,我又了解到某些东西。事实是你可能一辈子也不会读到这些文章了,去了美国你只会读关于你专业的学术文章,所以GRE为你提供了一个平台,让你去涉猎更多的领域。当你读到美国宪法修正案,美国黑人奴隶斗争史,女性作家时候试着让自己置身于这样一个年代,你会发现自己更投入。

2)随手查阅不懂得概念/事件/人物

GRE阅读的pre-knowledge到底有没有用?这是一个很有争议的话题。GRE阅读难点有两点:

①句子晦涩难懂
②时间非常有限,一遍必须读懂

如果你事先对某一概念了解了,那么这个绝对可以帮你化险为夷。但是不要把自己的观点过多的带入到文章,这样会影响你的理解。

当你在阅读时候读到了自己不熟悉的概念(在论坛大家主要是对文学评论类文章犯怵)这里我推荐几个好的方法给大家

①使用Evernote/Word 等随时记下感兴趣或者不知道想要查阅的东西
②打开Google Scholar或者 The New Yorker搜索相关概念

我在准备GRE过程中积累了很多这样的材料,比如法国画家Wattteau, 小行星撞击地球, 恐龙灭绝, 地球地壳活动

3)主动的去阅读

这是一个再强调也不过分的习惯。阅读时候你必须去主动的读,消极被动的阅读会让你读完一篇文章根本不知道讲了什么。而主动的读文章最好的方法就是PEAR

PEAR 也就是

Pause, 读完每个段落停下来
Evaluate, 总结大意,思考此段落的作用
Anticipate, 预期下一段会讲什么
Reassess, 读完下一段再对第二步的evaluate进行评估。

读下一段接着继续PEAR 直到全文读完 Reassess全文并清晰了解全文的行文方式和逻辑构思。

这里我想介绍一个更加aggressive的方法,这个方法可以在练习的时候使用。

①读文章首句
②停下来,回读文章首句,读的时候发挥自己的想象力,想一下这篇文章会怎么写,用什么观点,作者会持怎么样的态度

Eg: GRE99年4月国内题Section 2

Before Laura Gilpin(1891-1979), few women in the history of photography had so devoted themselves to chronicling the landscape.

读完这句话我知道这篇文章肯定会比较 LG和同时代或者她前人的摄影师对于风景的一些理解。

我预测会讲她的风格形成的原因,可能是历史因素;预测会比较她和不同摄影师关注点的不同和优劣;预测作者会对她有非常高的评价:对于摄影史上的风景摄影奠定了基础。

Ok,我们开始读第二句直到第一段读完

Other women had photographed the land, but none can be regarded as a landscape photographer with a sustained body of work documenting the physical terrain. Anne Brigman often photographed woodlands and coastal areas, but they were generally settings for her artfully placed subjects. Dorothea Lange’s landscapes were always conceived of as counterparts to her portraits of rural women.

猜的基本八九不离十。其实你无须猜中,如果你猜中了会让你印象非常深刻,猜不中你也会去主动的去阅读。于是主动阅读的目的就达到了。继续阅读的时候采用PEAR的法则。


4)Passage Map

读完文章用10-15秒在脑子里画一下这个文章的Map,行文方式,每一段讲了什么,作者态度。这是最最最重要的10-15秒,很多考生忽视了这10-15秒直接跳去做题,这样你不但对整篇文章做不到心中有数,更是会造成读了后面忘了前面。

150826180821_XOosu.jpg

你在每一次读完一篇GRE文章,都需要在脑子里有一个Passage Map, 这是非常重要的。
需要你从现在起每一篇文章都有10-15秒的时间去画出这个passage map




下面讲一些技巧层面的东西

GRE是一个学术向的应试考试,所选题材大都有迹可循。比如女性题材,历史之谜,黑人题材,科技现象,原理。对于阅读文章我推荐GRE北美题和国内题。这些题目一共196篇,我推荐所有题目做两遍。

技巧一:永远读句子之间的逻辑关系

GRE的一个段落其实就是一道逻辑单题无限扩充出来的段落,你需要知道里面那些是Premise, 那些是counter-example/statement, 那些是conclusion

一个最简单的例子, 依然是 1999年GRE Section 2

At the same time that Gilpin’s interest in landscape work distinguished her from most other women photographers, her approach to landscape photography set her apart from men photographers who, like Gilpin, documented the western United States. Western American landscape photography grew out of a male tradition, pioneered by photographers attached to government and commercial survey teams that went west in the 1860’s and 1870’s. These explorer- photographers documented the West that their employers wanted to see: an exotic and majestic land shaped by awesome natural forces, unpopulated and ready for American settlement. The next generation of male photographers, represented by Ansel Adams and Eliot Porter, often worked with conservationist groups rather than government agencies or commercial companies, but they nonetheless preserved the “heroic” style and maintained the role of respectful outsider peering in with reverence at a fragile natural world.

我估计第一句话就可以考到很多

At the same time that Gilpin’s interest in landscape work distinguished her from most other women photographers, her approach to landscape photography set her apart from men photographers who, like Gilpin, documented the western United States.

这句话第一个逗号直接将两个部分分隔,分别讲述了G与女摄影师和男摄影师的区别。下一句紧接男性作家的一些特点,并在文中出现了几个名字,Ansel, Eliot, 这段于是可以出很多infer题, G和大多数女摄影师的区别是什么? G和男摄影师的区别是什么?

Eg:
Some scientists say that global warming will occur because people are releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by burning trees and fossil fuels. We can see, though, that the predicted warming is occurring already. In the middle of last winter, we had a month of springlike weather in our area, and this fall, because of unusually mild temperatures, the leaves on our town's trees were three weeks late in turning color.

这是最典型的GRE阅读写作手法, Some people claim/assert/argue/suggest….. 你知道下一句话一定是转折,这个some people在这里就是充当counter-statement


永远都读句子的逻辑关系


技巧二:认真仔细的一个单词一个单词的读

你可以按照长难句的意群读,也可以整个句子的读,但是请你务必把所有的单词都读了。很有可能某一个单词就是一道考题,对于作者态度题这个技巧尤其重要。

Eg:
Despite these dire predictions, and even though the current African drought has lasted longer than any other in this century, the notion that the drought is caused by cooling of the Northern Hemisphere is, in fact, not well supported.

这个Dire你一下就可以看出作者的态度,cautious skepticism,于是这成了一道送分题



技巧三:永远排除法做题

在《爱一个美女好难》里面作者强调一个1600分的选手永远选正确答案,很不幸的是这个方法几乎已经无效了。随着GRE阅读出题陷阱越来越多,很难保证你看到的“正确答案”就是正确的。很有可能B跟E比,E更正确,但是你连看都没看E。针对错误类型主要有几大类

①Out of Scope, 这个在多选题里非常常见
Eg:
Galileo stuck lenses onto either of an organ pipe; today’s research telescopes, while considerably more elaborate, still perform the same fundamental task of collecting and focusing light. It’s all astronomers have to go on: electromagnetic radiation from distant objects, whether it arrives in the form of X rays or visible light or radio waves. Scientists rely, for instance, on spectroscopy, the process of separating light emitted by an object in space into its opponent wavelengths, as a prism does, then analyzing those components. And they invent new tools to analyze the light. To probe deeper and deeper into space, scientist must design better and better detectors, sensitive to the faintest of emissions.

It can be inferred from the passage that spectroscopy


A.Insufficient to describe the contours of objects in space.
B.interprets information from distance objects
C.does rely on light emissions as well as other components.

A就是一个out of scope选项。 Insufficient? Contour of objects? 文章中只出现了light. 排除掉
答案 BC

②One word wrong

③Contradiction

④True but irrelevant

⑤Too extreme

关于选项错误类型可以参照Manhattan GRE RC那本书


技巧四:善于总结错题

总结错题我的建议依然是Blind Review

Blind Review的意思是
1, 100%确定为什么你选择了某个答案(原因)

确定你为什么选择某一个选项,原文Line多少可以找到Back Up

2, 100%确定为什么你排除了某个答案(错误类型)
确定你为什么排除掉其他的选项,也就是那五个错误选项。 Dig into wrong answers

3, 当你的答案是错的时候,不要标出正确答案,重做一遍并计时这一遍做的时候问自己两个问题

- What about the right answer made me think it was wrong?
- What about the wrong answer made me think it was right?
拿个记事本(电脑上word也可以)写下来自己当时选择这个选项的原因,在排除掉一个选项后第二遍看看你能不能做对。而这次选择新的选项的原因是什么?在原文找到依据. 对于填空便是便是找到依据,确定句子转折递进关系。阅读便是定位改写和全文理解。

4, 对于不能100%确定地题目,不能100%确定排出的选项,标记,重做直到明白为止

5, 把错误原因写出来,为什么当时选了这个选项,原因是什么?回去做题时候标出原文行数,指出这里那里理解错了。


技巧五:Look for certainty

时刻关注一些修饰程度的词: some, most, all, never, and always等等,这些题都是infer题的来源,大都数错误选项也都集中在这些词里


技巧六:终极技巧——Pre-phrase

这应该是GRE阅读的最终极技巧了,在画完Passage Map后做题时候不看选项,直接自己在脑子里想出自己的理解

Eg:1997年4月GRE国内题 Section 4

Allen and Wolkowitz's research challenges the common claim that homework-waged labor performed at home for a company is primarily a response to women workers' needs and preferences. By focusing on a limited geographical area in order to gather in-depth information, the authors have avoided the methodological pitfalls that have plagued earlier research on homework. Their findings disprove accepted notions about homeworkers: that they are unqualified for other jobs and that they use homework as a short-term strategy for dealing with child care. 

The authors conclude that the persistence of homework cannot be explained by appeal to such notions, for, in fact, homeworkers do not differ sharply from other employed women. Most homeworkers would prefer to work outside the home but are constrained from doing so by lack of employers' desires to minimize fixed costs: homeworkers receive no benefits and are paid less than regular employees.

1. According to the passage, which of the following has been generally believed about homework?

(A) the benefits of homework accrue primarily to employers rather than to homeworkers.
(B) Homework is prevalent predominantly in rural areas.
(C) Homework is primarily a response to the preferences of women workers.
(D) Few homeworkers rely on homework for the majority of their family income.
(E) Most homework is seasonal and part-time rather than full-time and year-round.

这道题读完就应该知道答案在第一句话,也就是A&W challenge a conventional belief, 而这个belief就是 primarily a response to women workers' needs and preferences 于是带着这个pre-phrase去看答案,ABDE立刻排除掉,只有C正确


2. The passage suggests which of the following about previous research on homework?
(A) It was conducted primarily with women who did not have extensive household responsibilities or care for small children at home.
(B) It was conducted with homeworkers and companies over a large geographical area.
(C) It indicated that women homeworkers had numerous opportunities to work outside the home.
(D) It indicated that homeworkers usually work for companies that are close to their homes.
(E) It indicated that homework was financially advantageous to large companies.

这道题读完题应该知道这是第二句话,也就是A&W avoid a pitfall,A&W的方法是on a limited geographical area in order to gather in-depth information
那么以前的研究应该是与A&W方法对立,或者对on a limited geographical area in order to gather in-depth information这句话取反。能选的只有B


技巧七:通过不断地练习使你能够对晦涩的GRE文章和无聊的话题提起兴趣;通过积累材料不断阅读对于你的不熟悉领域你可以不畏惧;通过长难句你可以把那些复杂的句子用自己的话讲出来。

这也是练习GRE阅读最最重要的几个技能。对于GRE阅读的最高境界我认为是你读完一篇文章做完题后应该能够熟悉到可以给别人讲这篇文章内容并且分析。


技巧八:对于读不懂的文章读两遍

很多人会说,这样不是浪费时间吗,Well maybe, it depends.如果你读不懂做题也就徒劳,不如用原文定位的时间再去读一遍。在练习阶段如果遇到读不懂的你不妨去试试。随着你的阅读量上去,你会发现你对文章的把握会越来越精准,以后一遍就能读懂


技巧九:练习自己的节奏

GRE阅读做到最后就是关于疲劳度,耐性和节奏的问题,你在练习的这段时间要随时记录这些考场上会影响你的因素


技巧十:速度是在正确率和熟悉程度提升以后自然而然提升的

有很多版友一味的追求速度,这是非常致命的错误。在GRE阅读里面跳读略读等于自杀。所谓的速度是你在正确率稳定以后,随着阅读技巧和对错误选项的理解的加深而提升的。因此我的建议是先关注正确率,然后慢慢开始计时。Blind Review阶段也计时,从而最终达到长文章 6分钟做完题,短文章4分钟。这样你最终考试阶段会有足够多的时间可以检查并且推敲一些拿不准的选项。


技巧十一:Justify every words in answer choices

这也是一个需要注意的技巧。一个具有迷惑性的错误选项都是经过加工改造的,你需要对答案里出现的每一个单词都能在原文里找到依据并且做到100%确定为什么这个答案是错误的。

做完这一步另一个重要的步骤,深入研究为什么这个选项是错的(也就是为什么这是一个Great wrong answer)分析之后你会发现出题人的一些伎俩,避开这些陷进,你就会顺利跨入高分行列



写在后面的话:

有不少版友问有没有其他材料练习GRE阅读,在推荐其他材料的时候我都是非常犹豫的。因为到现在为止,GRE的阅读真题只有宝贵的196篇,我宁愿你把所有的题做两遍,因为只有这些题才是真正的ETS思维。

最后,祝各位阅读愉快,考出理想的成绩。

原帖作者:crazyrobin
原帖链接:http://bbs.gter.net/thread-1532588-1-1.html
©详细内容版友讨论请看论坛原帖,本文文字内容版权归寄托版友crazyrobin所有,不代表寄托天下立场。
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