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英语“方位”表示法  
寄托天下 2005-08-12 02:25 浏览7329次
英语方位表示法为数不少,但容易混淆。特别是几个介词的用法常常令自学者无所适从。有时 "一字之差" 就可能 "失之千里”。为此,我们拟用比较的方式以east为例介绍一些常见的方位表示法。   (一)in the east 与 on the east的区别 [b]  1.in the east表示我们生活中和地理位置上的绝对方向。如: [b]  The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. [b]  太阳从东边升起,从西边落下。 [b]  The Great Wall begins in the east from the Shanghaiguan Pass and ends at the Jiayuguan Pass in the west. [b]  长城东起山海关,西至嘉峪关。   2. on the east表示某事物位于另一事物所朝的方向。这里的方向是相对而言的。如: [b]  China faces the Pacific on the east. [b]  中国东临太平洋。 [b]  The United States faces the Atlantic on the east and the Pacific on the west. [b]  美国东临大西洋,西濒太平洋。   (二) in (to,on,at) the east of [b]  1.要表示A在B的东部,即:A在B的范围之内时就用"A is in the east of B",如: [b]  Japan is in the east of Asia. [b]  日本在亚洲东部。 [b]  Italy is in the south of Europe. [b]  意大利在欧洲南部。   2.如果A在B的东方,即:A在B的范围之外,且相隔有一定的距离,就用"A lies to the east of B".口语中有时可将to the省去。如: [b]  Japan lies (to the) east of China. [b]  日本位于中国东方。 [b]  France lies (to the) east of England. [b]  法国位于英国东方。   3.如果A在B的东边(侧),即:A与B相邻接。就用"A is on the east of B".如: [b]  Guangdong is on the south of Hunan. [b]  广东在湖南南边。 [b]  Shangdong is on the north of Jiangsu. [b]  山东在江苏北边。   4.如果把方位词当作一个整体看,或是看成一点,就用"A is at the east of B" 如: [b]  There was a big battle at the north of the Liaodong Peninsula. [b]  在辽东半岛的北边有一场大战。 [b]  5.如果要表示“A位于B东面100公里处”时我们既可以说"A lies l00km to the east of B",也可以说"A lies 100km east of B". 后者在美国口语中更为常见。如: [b]  The plane crashed 30 miles south of the city. [b]  飞机在离城南30英里处坠毁。 [b]  Suzhou lies 50 miles to the west of Shanghai. [b]  苏州位于上海西面50英里处。   (三) 汉语里“东南西北”的先后顺序到英语里就变成了north,south,east,west;并由此有了下列中、英文表达上的差异。 [b]  东南方:southeast   西南方:southwest [b]  西北方:northwest   东北方:northeast   如:十三陵位于北京西北50公里处。 [b]  The Ming Tombs are located about 50 km to the northwest of Beijing. [b]  天津位于北京东南120公里处。 [b]  Tiajin is situated l20 km southeast of Beijing.   (四)要表示方位的“偏向”时通常用by [b]  正东偏北: east by north [b]  正南偏西: south by west [b]  正北偏东: north by east [b]  正南偏东: south by east   如:We are sailing in the direction of east by north. [b]  我们正朝着正东偏北方向航行。 [b]  The island lies south by east from here. [b]  那个岛位于此地的正南偏东方向。 英语方位表示法为数不少,但容易混淆。特别是几个介词的用法常常令自学者无所适从。有时 "一字之差" 就可能 "失之千里”。为此,我们拟用比较的方式以east为例介绍一些常见的方位表示法。   (一)in the east 与 on the east的区别 [b]  1.in the east表示我们生活中和地理位置上的绝对方向。如: [b]  The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. [b]  太阳从东边升起,从西边落下。 [b]  The Great Wall begins in the east from the Shanghaiguan Pass and ends at the Jiayuguan Pass in the west. [b]  长城东起山海关,西至嘉峪关。   2. on the east表示某事物位于另一事物所朝的方向。这里的方向是相对而言的。如: [b]  China faces the Pacific on the east. [b]  中国东临太平洋。 [b]  The United States faces the Atlantic on the east and the Pacific on the west. [b]  美国东临大西洋,西濒太平洋。   (二) in (to,on,at) the east of [b]  1.要表示A在B的东部,即:A在B的范围之内时就用"A is in the east of B",如: [b]  Japan is in the east of Asia. [b]  日本在亚洲东部。 [b]  Italy is in the south of Europe. [b]  意大利在欧洲南部。   2.如果A在B的东方,即:A在B的范围之外,且相隔有一定的距离,就用"A lies to the east of B".口语中有时可将to the省去。如: [b]  Japan lies (to the) east of China. [b]  日本位于中国东方。 [b]  France lies (to the) east of England. [b]  法国位于英国东方。   3.如果A在B的东边(侧),即:A与B相邻接。就用"A is on the east of B".如: [b]  Guangdong is on the south of Hunan. [b]  广东在湖南南边。 [b]  Shangdong is on the north of Jiangsu. [b]  山东在江苏北边。   4.如果把方位词当作一个整体看,或是看成一点,就用"A is at the east of B" 如: [b]  There was a big battle at the north of the Liaodong Peninsula. [b]  在辽东半岛的北边有一场大战。 [b]  5.如果要表示“A位于B东面100公里处”时我们既可以说"A lies l00km to the east of B",也可以说"A lies 100km east of B". 后者在美国口语中更为常见。如: [b]  The plane crashed 30 miles south of the city. [b]  飞机在离城南30英里处坠毁。 [b]  Suzhou lies 50 miles to the west of Shanghai. [b]  苏州位于上海西面50英里处。   (三) 汉语里“东南西北”的先后顺序到英语里就变成了north,south,east,west;并由此有了下列中、英文表达上的差异。 [b]  东南方:southeast   西南方:southwest [b]  西北方:northwest   东北方:northeast   如:十三陵位于北京西北50公里处。 [b]  The Ming Tombs are located about 50 km to the northwest of Beijing. [b]  天津位于北京东南120公里处。 [b]  Tiajin is situated l20 km southeast of Beijing.   (四)要表示方位的“偏向”时通常用by [b]  正东偏北: east by north [b]  正南偏西: south by west [b]  正北偏东: north by east [b]  正南偏东: south by east   如:We are sailing in the direction of east by north. [b]  我们正朝着正东偏北方向航行。 [b]  The island lies south by east from here. [b]  那个岛位于此地的正南偏东方向。
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